Measuring patient safety climate: a review of surveys
- 1Department of Community and Family Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH, USA
- 2Departments of Pediatrics and of Internal Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH, USA
- 3Veterans Health Administration, White River Junction Field Office, National Center for Patient Safety, White River Junction, VT, USA
- 4Veterans Administration National Quality Scholars Fellowship Program; White River Junction Field Office, National Center for Patient Safety; Veterans’ Rural Health Initiative, Veterans Administration Medical Center, White River Junction, VT, USA; Departments of Psychiatry and of Community and Family Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH, USA
- Correspondence to: J B Colla ScD Department of Community and Family Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, 7251 Strasenburgh Hall, Hanover, NH 03755, USA;
- Accepted 27 June 2005
Objective: Five years ago the Institute of Medicine recommended improving patient safety by addressing organizational cultural issues. Since then, surveys measuring a patient safety climate considered predictive of health outcomes have begun to emerge. This paper compares the general characteristics, dimensions covered, psychometrics performed, and uses in studies of patient safety climate surveys.
Methods: Systematic literature review.
Results: Nine surveys were found that measured the patient safety climate of an organization. All used Likert scales, mostly to measure attitudes of individuals. Nearly all covered five common dimensions of patient safety climate: leadership, policies and procedures, staffing, communication, and reporting. The strength of psychometric testing varied. While all had been used to compare units within or between hospitals, only one had explored the association between organizational climate and patient outcomes.
Conclusions: Patient safety climate surveys vary considerably. Achievement of a culture conducive to patient safety may be an admirable goal in its own right, but more effort should be expended on understanding the relationship between measures of patient safety climate and patient outcomes.
This work was supported in part by the Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Health Services Research and Development Service (project no. REA 03-098).
None of the authors has any potential conflict of interest.
Dr Weeks is the Principal Investigator at the Veterans Administration Medical Center, White River Junction, VT, USA. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the United States government.