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Outcomes of classroom-based team training interventions for multiprofessional hospital staff. A systematic review
  1. Louise Isager Rabøl1,
  2. Doris Østergaard2,3,
  3. Torben Mogensen3,4
  1. 1Danish Society for Patient Safety, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark
  2. 2Danish Institute for Medical Simulation, Herlev Hospital, Herlev, Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark
  3. 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
  4. 4Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark
  1. Correspondence to Dr Louise Isager Rabøl, Danish Society for Patient Safety, Hvidovre Hospital, Dept 023, Kettegard Alle 30, 2650 Hvidovre, Denmark; louiseraboel{at}


Context Several studies show that communication errors in healthcare teams are frequent and can lead to adverse events. Team training has been suggested as a way to safer communication and has been implemented in healthcare as classroom-based or simulation-based team training or a combination of both. The objective of this paper is to systematically review studies evaluating the outcomes of classroom-based multiprofessional team training for hospital staff.

Method The authors searched PubMed, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycInfo, Cinahl and the Cochrane Reviews database and selected 18 studies for description and comparison of learners and setting, objective, design, intervention, evaluation methods (reaction, learning, behaviour and results), intervention time before evaluation, outcomes and risk of bias.

Results Participant reactions were positive. Learning and behaviour were positive in all studies, but for some only partially. The effect on clinical processes was in most instances positive. Results at patient level were limited. Only one study reported results at all four evaluation levels. Fifteen studies were uncontrolled, and 17 studies had a moderate or high risk of bias. More than half of the studies ended evaluation within 6 months. No studies reported qualitative measures that could have provided an insight as to why the interventions had the effect they had.

Conclusion Classroom-based team training for multiprofessional hospital staff is recommended as a way to improve patient safety. This review shows mainly positive effects of the intervention on participant reaction, learning and behaviour. The results at clinical level are still very limited.

  • Team training
  • crew resource management
  • patient safety
  • communication
  • outcomes

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  • Funding The Pharmacy Foundation of 1991 and Det Kommunale Momsfond funded this study.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.