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Five main processes in healthcare: a citizen perspective
  1. Bo Bergman1,
  2. Duncan Neuhauser2,
  3. Lloyd Provost3
  1. 1The Centre for Healthcare Improvement, Chalmers University of Technology Gothenburg, Sweden
  2. 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Medical School, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
  3. 3Associates in Process Improvement, Austin, Texas, USA
  1. Correspondence to Professor Bo Bergman, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, SE 41296, Sweden; bo.bergman{at}


A citizen point of view on the healthcare system, its processes and their improvement is emphasised. From this point of view, five main processes are identified: Keeping Healthy, Detecting Health Problems, Diagnosing Diseases, Treating Diseases and Providing for a Good End of Life. The citizen should be looked upon as a cocreator of value and improvement of these processes.

  • Healthcare system
  • process
  • improvement
  • citizen
  • continuous quality improvement
  • healthcare quality
  • patient-centred

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  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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