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Going DEEP: guidelines for building simulation-based team assessments
  1. James A Grand1,
  2. Marina Pearce2,
  3. Tara A Rench2,
  4. Georgia T Chao3,
  5. Rosemarie Fernandez4,
  6. Steve W J Kozlowski2
  1. 1College of Health Professions, The University of Akron, Akron, OH, USA
  2. 2Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
  3. 3Department of Management, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
  4. 4Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr. James A. Grand, College of Health Professions, The University of Akron, 101J Mary Gladwin Hall, Akron, OH, USA 44325; jgrand{at}


Background Whether for team training, research or evaluation, making effective use of simulation-based technologies requires robust, reliable and accurate assessment tools. Extant literature on simulation-based assessment practices has primarily focused on scenario and instructional design; however, relatively little direct guidance has been provided regarding the challenging decisions and fundamental principles related to assessment development and implementation.

Objective The objective of this manuscript is to introduce a generalisable assessment framework supplemented by specific guidance on how to construct and ensure valid and reliable simulation-based team assessment tools. The recommendations reflect best practices in assessment and are designed to empower healthcare educators, professionals and researchers with the knowledge to design and employ valid and reliable simulation-based team assessments.

Overview Information and actionable recommendations associated with creating assessments of team processes (non-technical ‘teamwork’ activities) and performance (demonstration of technical proficiency) are presented which provide direct guidance on how to Distinguish the underlying competencies one aims to assess, Elaborate the measures used to capture team member behaviours during simulation activities, Establish the content validity of these measures and Proceduralise the measurement tools in a way that is systematically aligned with the goals of the simulation activity while maintaining methodological rigour (DEEP).

Summary The DEEP framework targets fundamental principles and critical activities that are important for effective assessment, and should benefit healthcare educators, professionals and researchers seeking to design or enhance any simulation-based assessment effort.

  • Team training
  • Teams
  • Evaluation methodology
  • Performance measures

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