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Trauma Resuscitation Using in situ Simulation Team Training (TRUST) study: latent safety threat evaluation using framework analysis and video review


Introduction Trauma resuscitation is a complex and time-sensitive endeavour with significant risk for error. These errors can manifest from sequential system, team and knowledge-based failures, defined as latent safety threats (LSTs). In situ simulation (ISS) provides a novel prospective approach to recreate clinical situations that may manifest LSTs. Using ISS coupled with a human factors-based video review and modified framework analysis, we sought to identify and quantify LSTs within trauma resuscitation scenarios.

Methods At a level 1 trauma centre, we video recorded 12 monthly unannounced ISS to prospectively identify trauma-related LSTs. The on-call multidisciplinary trauma team participated in the study. Using a modified framework analysis, human factors experts transcribed and coded the videos. We identified LST events, categorised them into themes and subthemes and used a hazard matrix to prioritise subthemes requiring intervention.

Results We identified 843 LST events during 12 simulations, categorised into seven themes and 38 subthemes, of which 23 are considered critical. The seven themes relate to physical workspace, mental model formation, equipment, unclear accountability, demands exceeding individuals’ capacity, infection control and task-specific issues. The physical workspace theme accounted for the largest number of critical LST events (n=152). We observed differences in LST events across the four scenarios; complex scenarios had more LST events.

Conclusions We identified a diverse set of critical LSTs during trauma resuscitations using ISS coupled with video-based framework analysis. The hazard matrix scoring, in combination with detailed LST subthemes, supported identification of critical LSTs requiring intervention and enhanced efforts intended to improve patient safety. This approach may be useful to others who seek to understand the contributing factors to common LSTs and design interventions to mitigate them.

  • simulation
  • emergency department
  • human factors
  • quality improvement

Data availability statement

Data are available upon reasonable request. All deidentified participant data are available upon reasonable request from the study’s lead author (AP) who can be contacted at

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