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Development and validation of a new ICD-10-based screening colonoscopy overuse measure in a large integrated healthcare system: a retrospective observational study
  1. Megan A Adams1,2,
  2. Eve A Kerr1,3,
  3. Jason A Dominitz4,
  4. Yuqing Gao1,
  5. Nicholas Yankey1,
  6. Folasade P May5,
  7. John Mafi5,
  8. Sameer D Saini1,2
  1. 1VA Ann Arbor Center for Clinical Management Research, VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
  2. 2Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
  3. 3Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
  4. 4Gastroenterology Section, VA Puget Sound Health Care System Seattle Division, Seattle, Washington, USA
  5. 5University of California Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Megan A Adams, VA Ann Arbor Center for Clinical Management Research, VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA; meganada{at}med.umich.edu

Abstract

Background Low-value use of screening colonoscopy is wasteful and potentially harmful to patients. Decreasing low-value colonoscopy prevents procedural complications, saves patient time and reduces patient discomfort, and can improve access by reducing procedural demand. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an electronic measure of screening colonoscopy overuse using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition codes and then apply this measure to estimate facility-level overuse to target quality improvement initiatives to reduce overuse in a large integrated healthcare system.

Methods Retrospective national observational study of US Veterans undergoing screening colonoscopy at 119 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) endoscopy facilities in 2017. A measure of screening colonoscopy overuse was specified by an expert workgroup, and electronic approximation of the measure numerator and denominator was performed (‘electronic measure’). The electronic measure was then validated via manual record review (n=511). Reliability statistics (n=100) were calculated along with diagnostic test characteristics of the electronic measure. The measure was then applied to estimate overall rates of overuse and facility-level variation in overuse among all eligible patients.

Results The electronic measure had high specificity (99%) and moderate sensitivity (46%). Adjusted positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 33% and 95%, respectively. Inter-rater reliability testing revealed near perfect agreement between raters (k=0.81). 269 572 colonoscopies were performed in VHA in 2017 (88 143 classified as screening procedures). Applying the measure to these 88 143 screening colonoscopies, 24.5% were identified as potential overuse. Median facility-level overuse was 22.5%, with substantial variability across facilities (IQR 19.1%–27.0%).

Conclusions An International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition based electronic measure of screening colonoscopy overuse has high specificity and improved sensitivity compared with a previous International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition based measure. Despite increased focus on reducing low-value care and improving access, a quarter of VHA screening colonoscopies in 2017 were identified as potential low-value procedures, with substantial facility-level variability.

  • Healthcare quality improvement
  • General practice
  • Performance measures

Data availability statement

Data are available upon reasonable request. Members of the scientific community who would like a copy of the final data sets (ie, data sets underlying publication) from this study can request a copy by emailing Jennifer Burns at jennifer.burns@va.gov. They should state their reason for requesting the data and their plans for analysing the data. Final data sets will be copied onto a DVD. The DVD will be sent to the requester via FedEx. Each data set will be accompanied by documentation that lists all variables described in the publication and links them with variable names in the data set. De-identified data will be provided after requesters sign a letter of agreement (LOA) detailing the mechanisms by which the data will be kept secure. The LOA will also state that the recipient will not attempt to identify and individual in the data, will not share the data outside of their research team, and will provide information on any files to be linked to the data. The data set will not include PII and all dates will be changed to integers to allow for calculation of time periods.

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Data availability statement

Data are available upon reasonable request. Members of the scientific community who would like a copy of the final data sets (ie, data sets underlying publication) from this study can request a copy by emailing Jennifer Burns at jennifer.burns@va.gov. They should state their reason for requesting the data and their plans for analysing the data. Final data sets will be copied onto a DVD. The DVD will be sent to the requester via FedEx. Each data set will be accompanied by documentation that lists all variables described in the publication and links them with variable names in the data set. De-identified data will be provided after requesters sign a letter of agreement (LOA) detailing the mechanisms by which the data will be kept secure. The LOA will also state that the recipient will not attempt to identify and individual in the data, will not share the data outside of their research team, and will provide information on any files to be linked to the data. The data set will not include PII and all dates will be changed to integers to allow for calculation of time periods.

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Footnotes

  • Twitter @jnmafi

  • Contributors MAA, MD, JD, MSc: study concept and design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, statistical analysis, drafting the manuscript. EAK, MD, MPH: analysis and interpretation of data, critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content. JAD, MD, MHS: analysis and interpretation of data, critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content. YG, MS: acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data. NY, MPH, MSW: acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data. JNM, MD: analysis and interpretation of data, critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content. FPM, MD, PhD: analysis and interpretation of data, critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content. SDS, MD, MS: study concept and design, analysis and interpretation of data, critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content, study supervision.

  • Funding This study was supported by the VA Office of Reporting, Analytics, Performance, Improvement, and Deployment (RAPID). The first author is supported by a 2018 American College of Gastroenterology Junior Faculty Development Grant. A coauthor is supported by a National Institute on Aging (NIA) K76 Beeson Emerging Leaders career development award 1K76AG064392-01A1 and NIA R01 R01AG070017-01 Award.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.