Table 1

“Programmatic” and social movements perspectives on change

Programmatic approachSocial movements approach
A planned programme of change with goals and milestones (centrally led)Change is about releasing energy and is largely self-directing (bottom up)
“Motivating” people“Moving” people
Change is driven by an appeal to the “what’s in it for me”There may well be personal costs involved
Talks about “overcoming resistance”Insists change needs opposition—it is the friend not the enemy of change
Change is done “to” people or “with” them—leaders and followersPeople change themselves and each other—peer to peer
Driven by formal systems change: structures (roles, institutions) lead the change processDriven by informal systems: structures consolidate, stabilise and institutionalise emergent meanings but create nothing