Table 1

Estimates of relative risk reduction of cardiovascular events and all cause mortality

Disease (intervention)OutcomeRelative risk reduction (RRR)
CHD = coronary heart disease; ACE = angiotensin converting enzyme; A2 = angiotensin 2; HF = heart failure; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; CVD = cardiovascular disease.
*Defined as per Framingham study.15
CHD (aspirin)Cardiovascular events*25%34
CHD and HF (ACE inhibitors/A2 antagonists)Death or hospitalisation for HF26%24
Stroke (aspirin)Cardiovascular events*22%34
CHD (influenza immunization)Deaths from influenza50%27
Hypertension (antihypertensive treatment)Cardiovascular events*11% reduction in CHD and 19% reduction in stroke30 per 2.5 mm Hg reduction in DBP
Hypertension and CHD (antihypertensive treatment)
Hypertension and stroke (antihypertensive treatment)
Hypertension and diabetes (antihypertensive treatment)
High cholesterol and CHD (cholesterol lowering treatment)Cardiovascular events*10% reduction in CVD events per 0.2 mmol/l reduction31, 32
High cholesterol and stroke (cholesterol lowering treatment)
High cholesterol and diabetes (cholesterol lowering treatment)