Table 4

 Percentage of US and Japanese residents who reported the risk of patient complication at which they would speak up

Scenario: Suppose you are in the OR and doing a difficult operation with a senior surgeon who is concentrating deeply on the procedure. You notice that the senior surgeon has done something that might lead to a serious complication for the patient but the surgeon either does not seem to be aware of the problem or, in your view, has made a poor judgment. You are considering speaking up to “challenge” the senior surgeon.
Chance of the serious complicationNever challenge†10%1%0.10%0.0001%p value*
*p value calculated by Wilcoxon rank sum test.
†Regardless of the chance of the complication, the subject would not challenge seniors
US residents with 2 years of training or less034.443.812.59.40.07
JP residents with 2 years of training or less5.547.330.912.73.6