Table 2

 Developmental strategies for transforming non-high reliability teams into high reliability teams

Developmental strategyDefinition
Cross trainingTeam members are able to gain a clear understanding and shared representation (shared mental model) of how the team functions as well as how each individual’s tasks and responsibilities are interrelated to those of other team members.35
Perceptual contrast trainingTeam members are actively involved in learning in order to create a deeper and more acute understanding of the instructional material.56 Team members may be required to actively compare the defining characteristics of contrasting cases which will give them a keener understanding of the concepts.
Team coordination trainingTeam members improve skills such as team coordination, communication (both explicit and implicit), and back-up behaviour.57,58 Practice opportunities are also provided for additional competencies that lead to effective coordination.
Team self-correction trainingTeam members are taught to assess the effectiveness of their own behavior and that of others.27,43 Team members are also taught how to provide constructive feedback and correct deficient behaviors.
Scenario based trainingTeam members are given an opportunity to experience critical learning events (such as common instances where errors and unsafe behaviors are occurring) embedded in the training scenarios, allowing them to learn from a meaningful framework.34,44
Guided error trainingTeam members are able to experience errors, react to errors, and see the consequences of errors through guided practice (Lorenset et al, unpublished).47,49 Errors are used as a function of information that provide feedback to trainees so they may develop better learning and knowledge transfer strategies to be used in the real task environment.