Table 1

 Comparison of healthcare behavioural markers with LOSA behavioural markers*

LOSAUTBMNRHalamek et al(neonatal resuscitation)2Gaba et al(anaesthesia)1Carthey et al(paediatric cardiac surgery)3††
*All groups of markers were originally based upon LOSA. Therefore the LOSA markers are listed first in the table. The table is a simplification of LOSA—the LOSA markers were developed for different phases of flight (predeparture/taxi, takeoff/climb, descent/approach/land, and global). For the UTBMNR, we are able to indicate why a marker is or is not comparable to LOSA, as indicated by the remaining footnotes.
†Not included because not observed on the video recordings.
‡Collapsed with workload management.
§Not included because not observed on the video recordings.
¶Included as part of workload management.
**Does not appear to be an important part of neonatal resuscitation.
††The markers from Carthey et al are grouped into team, individual, and organisational markers, as indicated in parentheses after each marker.
LOSA, Line Operations Safety Audit; UTBMNR, University of Texas behavioural markers for neonatal resuscitation.
BriefingsNo comparable marker†Know the environmentOrientationMental readiness (individual)
Feedback
Plans statedIntentions verbalised
Workload assignmentNo comparable marker‡Distribute workload optimallyWorkload distribution
Contingency managementNo comparable marker§Anticipate and planPreparation / planning / anticipationAnticipation
Monitor/crosscheckNo comparable marker¶
Workload managementWorkload managementCoordination (team)
VigilanceVigilanceAllocate attention wiselyVigilanceSituational awareness (individual)
Automation managementNo comparable marker**
Evaluation of plansEvaluation of plansRe-evaluation
InquiryInquiryInquiry / advocacy / assertion
AssertivenessAssertionInquiry / advocacy / assertion
Communication environmentInformation sharingCommunicationsCommunication style (individual)
Communication (team)
LeadershipLeadershipAssume the leadership roleLeadership/followershipTeam leadership (team)
Overall hot-seat person effectiveness
Teamwork overallCommunicate effectivelyGroup climate
Use all available informationOverall anaesthesia crew effectivenessCognitive flexibility (individual)
Use all available resourcesTeam adaptation (individual)
Call for help early enoughSafety awareness (individual)
Maintain professional behaviour
Experience (team)
Redundancy (team)
Adaptation (team)
Policy (organisational)
Planning and scheduling (organisational)
Learning mechanisms (organisational)