Table 7

 Regional anaesthesia sub-algorithm

Total sample included *E/S, epidural or spinal block cases (98 epidural, 91 spinal, 4 combined, 3 caudal); †BrPl, brachial plexus block cases (12 axillary block, 5 interscalene block, 3 supraclavicular block, 1 not stated); ‡Oph, ophthalmic block cases (9 peribulbar, 9 retrobulbar, 5 not stated).
§A total of 16 blood patches were required after dural puncture.
Ask the patient (6 cases)Wrong patient1
Wrong side22
Failed block1
Local anaesthetic toxicity (11 cases)Fitting2
Other effects8
Assess level of block (30 cases)Overdose, n = 203
 Total spinal14
 High block/prolonged recovery3
Underdose/failed block, n = 10
 Incorrect infusion rate3
 Communication error1
 Not stated6
Catheter/needle problems (76 cases)
Inadvertent intravascular placement or injection (20 cases)713
Fitting (5 brachial plexus blocks)
Other effects (8 brachial plexus blocks)
Inadvertent intrathecal placement or injection (35 cases)
Inadvertent subarachnoid injection1
Dural puncture (17 with headache§; 10 without headache; 6 not stated)33
Migration of epidural catheter1
Inadvertent subdural placement or injection (3 cases)
Subdural drug effect3
Blocked/kinked/split catheter, or catheter pulled out (4 cases)4
Trauma (7 cases)Pneumothorax1
Epidural haematoma1
Bloody spinal tap2
Haematoma/haemorrhage after ophthalmic block2
Corneal damage1
Infection (2 cases)Epidural abscess1
Positive catheter tip culture1
Pain (5 cases)Dural puncture headache after spinal block§4
Backache after epidural block1
Consequences of sensory/motor blockade (1 case)Fall post-spinal block1
MiscellaneousHypothermia after epidural block2
Remaining (6 cases)Other4