Table 1

 Team instructional strategies

Instructional strategyDescription
Table adapted from Salas et al.25
*Wilson-Donnelly et al, Does CRM training work? An update, extension, and some critical needs (under review).
† Jentsch F. Metacognitive training for junior team members: solving the “copilot’s catch-22. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Orlando, USA: University of Central Florida, 1997.
CRM, crew resource management ; KSA, knowledge, skills and attitudes.
Cross training16Team mates develop an understanding for the tasks, duties and responsibilities of coworkers; strategy targets team members interpositional knowledge and shared mental models for development; increases team coordination and reduces process loss
Team coordination training*17Also known as CRM; focuses on teaching team members about basic process underlying teamwork; strategy widely applied in aviation, medical, and military communities; targets mutual performance monitoring and back up behaviour
Team self correction training18,19Team members are taught techniques for monitoring and then categorising their own behaviours as to the degree of its effectiveness; this process generates instructive feedback so that team members can review performance episodes and correct deficiencies; additional KSAs targeted initiative, communication
Team building20Targets role clarification, goal setting, problem solving, or interpersonal relations for improvement. However, recent meta-analytic evidence suggests team building only increases performance when targeting subjective criteria such as role clarification
Assertiveness training21Utilises behavioural modelling techniques to demonstrate both assertive and non-assertive behaviours; provides multiple practice and feedback opportunities for trainees
Metacognition training†22Targets trainee’s executive monitoring and self regulatory cognitive processes for development; training develops metacognitive skills which serve to regulate cognitive abilities such as inductive and deductive reasoning
Stress exposure training23,24Targets trainee knowledge of both potential stressors and coping strategies; develops trainee insight into the link between stressors, perceived stress, and individual affect and performance