Table 2

‚ÄÉComponents and elements of the SEIPS model

ComponentsElements (examples)
Work system or structurePersonEducation, skills and knowledge
Motivation and needs
Physical characteristics
Psychological characteristics
Coordination, collaboration and communication
Organizational culture and patient safety culture
Work schedules
Social relationships
Supervisory and management style
Performance evaluation, rewards and incentives
Technologies and toolsVarious information technologies: electronic health record, computerized provider order entry and bar coding medication administration
Medical devices
Other technologies and tools
Human factors characteristics of technologies and tools (e.g. usability)
TasksVariety of tasks
Job content, challenge and utilization of skills
Autonomy, job control and participation
Job demands (e.g. workload, time pressure, cognitive load, need for attention)
Temperature, humidity and air quality
Work station design
ProcessCare processes and other processesCare processes
Other processes: information flow, purchasing, maintenance, cleaning
Process improvement activities
OutcomesEmployee and organizational outcomesJob satisfaction and other attitudes
Job stress and burnout
Employee safety and health
Organizational health (e.g. profitability)
Patient outcomesPatient safety
Quality of care