Table 4

 The “big five” of teamwork38

Teamwork competenciesDefinitionBehavioural examples
Team leadership25,50,51Ability to direct and coordinate the activities of other team members, assess team performance, assign tasks, develop team KSA’s, motivate team members, plan and organise, and establish a positive atmosphere.Facilitate team problem solving
Provide performance expectations and acceptable interaction patterns
Synchronise and combine individual team member contributions
Seek and evaluate information that impacts team functioning
Clarify team member roles
Engage in preparatory meetings and feedback sessions with the team
Mutual performance monitoring6Ability to develop common understandings of the team environment and apply appropriate task strategies in order to accurately monitor team mate performance.Identifying mistakes and lapses in other team members actions
Providing feedback regarding team member actions in order to facilitate self correction
Backup behaviour6,52Ability to anticipate other team members’ needs through accurate knowledge about their responsibilities. Includes the ability to shift workload among members to achieve balance during high periods of workload or pressure.Recognition by potential back up providers that there is a workload distribution problem in their team
Shifting of work responsibilities to underutilised team members
Completion of the whole task or parts of tasks by other team members
Adaptability/flexibility50,53Ability to adjust strategies based on information gathered from the environment through the use of compensatory behaviour and reallocation of intrateam resources; altering a course of action or team repertoire in response to changing conditions (internal or external).Identify cues that a change has occurred, assign meaning to that change, and develop a new plan to deal with the changes
Identify opportunities for improvement and innovation for habitual or routine practices
Remain vigilant to changes in the internal and external environment of the team
Team/collective orientation54Propensity to take others’ behaviour into account during group interaction and the belief in the importance of team goal’s over individual member’s goals.Taking into account alternative solutions provided by team mates and appraising that input to determine what is most correct
Increased task involvement, information sharing, strategising, and participatory goal setting