Table 1

 Characteristics of patients at baseline, by exposure groups

CharacteristicPrimary care(n = 17 390)Specialty care(n = 6842)p Value
Age, years (mean (SD))61 (15)59.5 (14.7)<0.001
Men, n (%)9582 (55)3926 (57)0.001
Practice setting, n (%)<0.001
    Large urban5609 (32)3150 (46)
    Small urban3414 (20)1147 (17)
    Rural8367 (48)2545 (37)
Total visits to a doctor in the year before diagnosis of diabetes (mean (SD))7.8 (8.6)10.5 (10.8)<0.001
Comorbidities at baseline, n (%)
    Coronary artery disease1898 (11)1577 (23)<0.001
    Stroke357 (2)249 (4)<0.001
    Diabetic neuropathy200 (1)152 (2)<0.001
    Diabetic retinopathy1430 (8)645 (9)0.003
    Diabetes nephropathy525 (3)267 (4)<0.001
Resource use within the first year of diabetes diagnosis, (mean (SD))
    Primary care visits within the 1 year9.6 (7.5)11.5 (9)<0.001
    Specialist visits within the 1 year02.5 (3.0)<0.001