Table 1 Patient characteristics
Demographic variablesN = 80 (n (%))
Sex (%)
    Male38 (48)
    Female42 (52)
Age range (years)18–79
Mean age in years (SD)49.69 (16.53)
Ethnicity (%)
    Caucasian66 (83)
    Non-Caucasian14 (17)
Education (%)
    Degree22 (28)
    No degree58 (72)
Employment (%)
    Employed44 (55)
    Unemployed6 (7.5)
    Retired22 (27.5)
    Student6 (7.5)
    Registered disabled2 (2.5)
Type of operation (%)
    Upper gastrointestinal3 (3.75)
    Lower gastrointestinal38 (47.5)
    Ear, nose and throat3 (3.75)
    Upper limb2 (2.5)
    Lower limb11 (13.75)
    Vascular3 (3.75)
    Breast13 (16.25)
    Cardiothoracic1 (1.25)
    Urology2 (2.25)
    Incision of skin lesion3 (3.75)
    Gynaecological1 (1.25)