Table 1 Theoretical framework to improve handoffs
Theoretical frameworkEvidence from night float case studyACGME core competenciesEducational opportunities: applications to handoffs
Costs of coordinationCommunication failures; uncertainty during medical decision-making, “I did not know…”CommunicationFormal education in handoff communication with providers and patients, eg, SBAR
Agency problemShift-work mentality, lack of responsibility to cross-cover patients, “Not my patient”ProfessionalismEstablish handoffs as a transfer of professional responsibility, “Every patient is your patient”