Table 7 Interventions related to operation- and drug-related events
Type of eventInterventionHighest-level study exampleLevel of evidence
Operation-relatedLocalising care to high-volume centresHalm et al. Is volume related to outcome in health care? A systematic review and methodologic critique of the literature. Ann Intern Med 2002342A
Training programmes for laparoscopic proceduresScheeres et al. Animate advanced laparoscopic courses improve resident operative performance. Am J Surg 2004352B
Medical emergency teamBellomo et al. Prospective controlled trial of effect of medical emergency team on postoperative morbidity and mortality rates. Crit Care Med 2004362B
Ultrasound guidance of central vein catheterisationRandolph et al. Ultrasound guidance for placement of central venous catheters: a meta-analysis of the literature. Crit Care Med 1996371A
Prevention of surgical site infections:Antibiotic prophylaxisSong et al. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Br J Surg 1998381A
Peri-operative normothermiaKurz et al. Perioperative normothermia to reduce the incidence of surgical-wound infection and shorten hospitalization. N Engl J Med 1996391B
Supplemental oxygenGreif et al. Supplemental perioperative oxygen to reduce the incidence of surgical-wound infection. N Engl J Med 2000401B
Glucose control in diabeticsFurnary et al. Clinical effects of hyperglycemia in the cardiac surgery population: the portland diabetic project. Endocr Pract 2006412B
Perioperative beta blockersDevereaux et al. How strong is the evidence for the use of perioperative beta blockers in non-cardiac surgery? Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2005421A
Drug-relatedComputerised Physician Order Entry (CPOE) and Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS)Overhage et al. A randomized trial of “corollary orders” to prevent errors of omission. J Am Med Inform Assoc 1997431B
Clinical pharmacist consultation servicesLeape et al. Pharmacist participation on physician rounds and adverse drug events in the intensive care unit. JAMA 1999442B
Bar code technology in pharmacyPoon et al. Medication dispensing errors and potential adverse drug events before and after implementing bar code technology in the pharmacy. Ann Intern Med 2006452B
Patient self-management of anticoagulationCromheecke et al. Oral anticoagulation self-management and management by a specialist anticoagulation clinic: a randomized crossover comparison. Lancet 2000461B