Table 1

 Levels of organisational safety culture (Parker and Hudson24)

Level of organisational safety cultureCharacterisation
Level 1: pathologicalWhy do we need to waste our time on risk management and safety issues?
Level 2: reactiveWe take risk seriously and do something every time we have an incident
Level 3: calculativeWe have systems in place to manage all possible risks
Level 4: proactiveWe are always on the alert, thinking of risks that might emerge
Level 5: generativeRisk management is an integral part of everything we do