Table 2

Practices to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia and CLABSIs

AbbreviationDescriptionType of changeHICPAC grade% Hospitals reported using*
Practices to prevent CLABSIs
Sterile central venous catheter insertion proceduresMaximum sterile barrier precautions (full gown, sterile gloves, large sterile drape) during central catheter insertionHybrid—new technology (longer drapes) with moderate degree of behavioural change requiredIA184% VA, 71% non-VA3
Chlorhexidine gluconate for antisepsis of the insertion siteHybrid—new technology (new antiseptic) with moderate degree of behavioural change required (new method of application)IA191% VA, 69% non-VA3
Antimicrobial central venous cathetersAntimicrobial (eg, minocycline–rifampin) or antiseptic-impregnated (eg, chlorhexidine) central venous cathetersTechnology—change in technology (new catheters) with relatively little required behavioural changeIB132% VA, 38% non-VA3
Practices to prevent VAPs
Head-of-bed elevationRaising the head of the bed to 30–45°Behavioural change—Raising the head-of-bed requires a high degree of behavioural change with no new technologies required (although specialised beds are available to support this practice)II283%4
Drain tubesSubglottic secretion drainage tubesTechnology—change in technology (new tubes) with relatively little required behavioural changeII221%4
  • CLABSI, central line-associated bloodstream infections; HICPAC, Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee; VA, Veteran Affairs; VAPs, ventilator-associated pneumonia.

  • Numerical superscripts refer to citations in the list of references.

  • *Weighted proportions based on survey responses from n = 95 VA hospitals and n = 421 non-VA hospitals then weighted using sample weights to reflect the full population of US VA and non-VA acute care hospitals with 50 or more hospital beds and an ICU.