Table 2 Associations between strategies at the hospital and ward levels (simple linear regression models)
Data source: questionnaire (n = 389)
Level of analysis: hospital and wards
Variables (at hospital/ward level)MaternityInternal medicineSurgery
r2Change in explanatory strategies per unit of hospital strategyr2Change in explanatory strategies per unit of hospital strategyr2Change in explanatory strategies per unit of hospital strategy
TQM481.19 (1.04 to 1.34)280.49 (0.40 to 0.58)451.09 (0.95 to 1.23)
Internal assessment260.57 (0.44 to 0.70)250.46 (0.36 to 0.56)260.59 (0.47 to 0.71)
Patient safety70.42 (0.24 to 0.60)110.44 (0.30 to 0.58)10.49 (0.33 to 0.66)
Clinical guidelines40.33 (0.14 to 0.52)NSNS
Performance indicators30.13 (0.03 to 0.23)40.21 (0.08 to 0.34)40.23 (0.09 to 0.38)
Patients’ views70.25 (0.13 to 0.38)20.13 (0.04 to 0.22)20.14 (0.04 to 0.24)
  • NS, not significant; TQM, quality management programme.