Table 1

RIAS doctors: frequency of code groupings according to consultation type (after Paasche-Orlow and Roter21)*

Communication behaviourUnadjustedAdjusted*
TelephoneFace to facep Valuep Value95% CI
Data gathering
 Closed-ended biomedical questions3.58.60.0020.033+0.3 to +7.7
 Open-ended biomedical questions1.43.10.0080.09−0.2 to +3.1
 Closed-ended psychosocial questions0.21.90.0080.044+0.1 to +3.5
 Open-ended psychosocial questions0.30.31.00
 Bids for clarification0.10.50.09
 Total count5.514.4<0.0010.003+2.9 to +13.3
Patient education and counselling
 Provides biomedical info7.319.4<0.001<0.001+4.8 to +13.2
 Provides psychosocial info1.01.70.36
 Counsels biomedical2.75.40.0120.06−0.1 to +5.3
 Counsels psychosocial0.20.30.56
 Total count11.226.9<0.001<0.001+5.8 to +17.2
Rapport building
 Personal remark2.23.40.051
 Laughter/tells jokes0.63.1<0.001<0.001+1.1 to +3.2
 Concern0.10.30.0450.66−0.3 to +0.4
 Reassure0.83.6<0.0010.012+0.5 to +3.6
 Total count4.111.8<0.001<0.001+3.9 to +10.0
Partnership building
 Paraphrase (checks understanding)
 Partnering (shows partnership/support)
 Asks for opinion0.20.70.0230.30−0.4 to +0.8
 Asks for understanding0.11.10.28
 Asks for reassurance0.00.10.31
 Total count0.62.40.0440.26−1.2 to +4.2
 Shows disapproval0.10.40.33
 Shows criticism0.00.10.16
 Total count0.−0.7 to +1.1
Giving direction
 Gives orientation0.63.9<0.0010.15−0.6 to +4.1
 Total count1.15.0<0.0010.09−0.4 to +4.5
Total count of all codes34.074.5<0.001<0.001+19.5 to +43.9
RIAS patients: frequency of code groupings according to consultation type*
Data gathering
 Closed-ended biomedical questions1.21.60.29
 Open-ended biomedical questions0.20.50.09
 Closed-ended psychosocial questions0.10.20.35
 Open-ended psychosocial questions0.030.010.81
 Bids for clarification0.10.10.47
 Total count1.−0.6 to +2.1
Provides information
 Provides biomedical information14.227.8<0.0010.028+1.0 to +16.1
 Provides psychosocial information1.87.90.0020.06−0.3 to +8.9
 Total count16.035.8<0.0010.002+5.0 to +20.1
Rapport building
 Personal remark1.82.40.34
 Laughter/tells jokes0.74.9<0.0010.003+1.0 to +4.4
 Total count3.18.6<0.0010.003+1.4 to +6.2
Partnership building
 Paraphrase (checks understanding)
 Partnering (shows partnership/support)0.00.0n/a
 Asks for opinion0.030.00.24
 Asks for understanding0.060.060.96
 Asks for reassurance0.00.20.0460.66−0.2 to +0.2
 Total count0.10.20.460.55−0.2 to +0.4
 Shows disapproval0.50.50.92
 Shows criticism0.20.10.29
 Total count0.70.60.790.25−1.9 to +0.5
 Gives orientation0.10.10.48
 Total count0.20.30.490.63−0.7 to +0.4
Total count of all codes29.362.2<0.001<0.001+9.3 to +30.4
  • RIAS, Roter Interaction Analysis Scale,

  • * The figures represent the average number of utterances of this type in each sort of consultation. Adjusted p values and confidence intervals for mean difference between face-to-face and telephone consultations are shown where the unadjusted result was significant, and take account of age, sex, number and type of presented problems, doctor/patient initiation, length of consultation and consulting doctor.