Table 3

Specific sources of interruptions presented in the study

StudySources of interruptions
Brixey et al15Telephone, pager, other people and self
Dearden et al20Phone, forms/prescriptions and other
Friedman et al12Patient, family, nurses, consulting doctors, emergency department students and house staff, clinical other, technical, administration/page, non-clinical other and personal
Healey, Primus et al33Conversation, phone, bleeper, equipment, procedure, environment and monitor
Healey, Sevdalis et al34Phone, bleeper, radio, anaesthetists' case-irrelevant conversation, surgeons' case-irrelevant conversation, nurses' case-irrelevant conversation, communication, external staff, equipment, procedural, environment, movement behind video display monitor and movement in front of video display monitor
Hedberg and Larsson10Patient, family, assistant nurse, registered nurse, ward physician, ward secretary and noise
Laxmisan et al55Patients, other staff (attending physicians, nurses, residents, patient, hospital employee, etc), telephone and pagers
Pape16Medical doctor,61 other person, phone call, other patient, visitor, missing medication, wrong dose medication, emergency situation, external talking or nurse talked and loud noise
*Pape et al17Physician/nurse practitioner/physicians assistant, other nurse, visitor, other personnel, medication missing or wrong dose present, problem with computer, external conversation or nurse conversed and loud noise
Paxton et al22Phone and person
Peleg et al18Telephone calls, entrance of nursing staff, unscheduled patients, physician leaves room, house visits and other
Potter et al1Telephone call, medication/medical procedure related, inquiries/informs (from unit clerk, registered nurse, doctor, family, nursing office, dietician, staff, general), patient rounds, staff/items/equipment not available or missing, and staff conflict
Shvartzman and Antonovsky57Nurse, student, physician, patient, maintenance worker, clerical worker and telephone
Tucker and Spear41Medication, supply items (including food), medical orders, equipment, insufficient staffing, patient related and other
  • Those studies not listed in table 3 either did not distinguish interruptions by sources or only focused on one type of interruption source (eg, pager).

  • * Categories were predetermined for use in a questionnaire.