Table 4 Tools for resilience (adapted from Woods et al27): measurement, improvement and prediction
Type of resilience toolExplanationKnowledge base
1. Measurement toolsWays to analyse, measure and monitor the resilience of organisations in their operating environment“Principles of resilience” (see table 2)
2. Improvement toolsTools and methods to improve an organisation’s resilience vis-à-vis the environment“Stages of resilience” (see table 3)
3. Prediction toolsTechniques to model and predict the short- and long-term effects of change and decisions on riskProvide basis and support for “sacrifice decisions”* (see Morel et al28)
  • *New research is needed to understand the judgement process that underpins “sacrificing” in organisations, especially from the perspective of resilient organisations. Morel et al28 help begin this discourse.