Table 1 Aspects of simple, complicated and complex problems (adapted from Glouberman and Zimmerman24)
ExampleBaking a cake from a boxSending a rocket to the moonRaising a child
ProcessRecipes are essentialFormulae are critical and necessary for successFormulae and recommendations are useful but limited in application
Expertise requiredNo particular expertise required but previous experience can improve successHigh levels of expertise and specialised coordination of resources are necessaryExpertise can contribute but is not necessary nor sufficient to ensure success
Uniqueness of the outcomeA good recipe should produce the same outcome each timeFollowing formulae should ensure similar outcomesEach outcome is unique
Expected outcomesExpect the same result each timeHigh degree of certainty of outcome if formulae are followed correctlyOutcome is uncertain and cannot be reliably predicted beforehand