Table 1

Characteristics of included studies (n = 20)

Type of healthcare provider
    General practitioners13
    Medical specialists3
    Other healthcare providers4
Type of guideline
Subject of study
    Preventive care5
    Diagnosis and treatment12
    Prevention/diagnosis and treatment3
Study design
    Cluster RCT9
    Controlled before and after study5
    Interrupted time series design1
    Uncontrolled before and after study5
Implementation strategy*
        Distribution of educational materials2
        Outreach visits vs audit and feedback1
        Distribution of educational materials11
        Educational meetings14
        Local consensus processes3
        Educational outreach visits4
        Audit and feedback11
        Financial intervention1
Type of effect measured
    Process and/or structure of care19
    Patient health outcomes9
  • RCT, randomised controlled trial.

  • *Interventions used as part of a single or multifaceted strategy were classified according to the Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group taxonomy of interventions.23