Table 3

Opiate-related oversedation adverse drug event characteristics

Location of event
 Cardiac intensive care unit2/34 (5.9%)
 Newborn intensive care unit4/34 (11.8%)
 Paediatric intensive care unit10/34 (29.4%)
 Operating room1/34 (2.9%)
 Post-anaesthesia care unit2/34 (5.9%)
 All other units15/34 (44.1%)
Time naloxone given
 07:00–15:009/34 (26.5%)
 15:00–23:0017/34 (50.0%)
 23:00–07:008/34 (23.5%)
Patients that had surgery19/34 (55.9%)
Patients extubated up to 8 h before the event12/34 (35.3%)
Pain consult team involved in patient's care12/34 (35.3%)
Pain management
 Intravenous pain medication only22/34 (64.7%)
 Patient-controlled analgesia system only10/34 (29.4%)
 Intravenous pain medications and patient-controlled analgesia system2/34 (5.9%)
Patients with an underlying chronic condition26/34 (76.5%)
Other clinical characteristics associated with oversedation events:
 Surgical patients whose event was within 48 h of surgery19/19 (100.0%)
 Surgical patients for whom the event occurred in the post-anaesthesia care unit or soon after discharge from post-anaesthesia care unit7/19 (36.8%)
 Event related to a dosing or administration error6/34 (17.6%)
 Patients for whom opiate orders were written by more than one physician team3/34 (8.8%)
 Patients that received multiple sedatives and/or analgesics on the day of the event20/34 (58.8%)