Table 2

Definition of behavioural elements

Behavioural elementDefinition
Briefing (note: briefings and/or rebriefings were recorded as a single observation)Create a shared mental model by discussing pertinent clinical information and an anticipated plan of action; Set the tone for collaboration and information sharing by creating and atmosphere of safety to speak up.
RebriefingA shortened briefing that occurs if there is a significant change in team members or significant change in the procedure.
SBARSituation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation.
Verbal knowledge sharing of ideas, plans, concernsAny verbal knowledge sharing which is audible to the team or work group and helps to maintain situational awareness and a shared mental model—may include teaching.
Closed loop communicationSpeaking back a teammate's request; confirms that the request was heard correctly and is being acted upon; includes any verbal response including instrument requests met with a verbal response.
Appropriate conflict resolution and assertionAppropriate assertion of ideas or concerns; Appropriate negotiation of issues; Appropriate escalation of concerns including requesting external consultation.
De-briefingTeam members are informally assembled after a procedure or activity; Discuss relevant information for the purpose; Identifying: what went well, what could have been done differently, what was learned.