Table 1

General failure types identified in the oil and gas industry9

General failure typesExplanation
1. HardwareQuality and availability of tools and equipment
2. DesignInadequate design leading directly to errors and violations
3. Maintenance managementManagement of maintenance activities
4. ProceduresQuality, accuracy, relevance, availability and workability of procedures
5. Error-enforcing conditionsConditions relating to either the workplace or the individual that can lead to unsafe acts
6. HousekeepingOrganisational inaction in response to known problems
7. Incompatible goalsGoal conflicts at the individual, group or organisational level
8. CommunicationsCommunication problems including absence of communication channels, message failures, reception failures
9. OrganisationInadequate organisational structure, organisational responsibilities and management of contractor safety
10. TrainingInadequate understanding of training requirements, low priority given to training, inadequate definition of competence requirements
11. DefencesFailures in detection, warning, personnel protection, recovery, containment, escape and rescue