Table 2

Systems of service: the evangelist and snail moral syndromes

Evangelist moral syndromeSnail moral syndrome
  • Take on messy problems

  • Respect and include context

  • Adapt interventions

  • Seek discovery and explanation

  • Learn from heterogeneity

  • Value learning by trial and error

  • Test hypotheses by attempting replication and confirmation

  • Seek local impact

  • Require application

  • Accept credit for the team

  • Seek timeliness

  • Solve sharply defined problems

  • Avoid and control out context

  • Adhere strictly to protocols

  • Pursue causal relationships

  • Strive for homogeneity

  • Rely on structured, sequential learning

  • Test hypotheses by attempting falsification

  • Seek generalisability

  • Require publication

  • Expect personal credit

  • Seek timelessness