Table 2

Medication administration errors according to medicine delivery system and formulation

Monitored dosage system tablets/capsulesNon-monitored dosage system tablets/capsulesLiquidsInhalersTopicals, transdermals and injections
N=180N=138N=96N=23N=20
n=732n=404n=164n=52n=28
Errors per resident
 0 (%)161 (89.4)119 (86.2)82 (85.4)12 (52.2)11 (55.0)
 1 (%)13 (7.2)13 (9.4)9 (9.4)6 (26.1)7 (35.0)
 2+ (%)6 (3.3)6 (4.3)5 (5.2)5 (21.7)2 (10.0)
 Total (%)19/180 (10.6)19/138 (13.8)14/96 (14.6)11/23 (47.8)9/20 (45.0)
Mean no of errors per resident0.170.200.211.130.55
Mean no of errors per medicine31/73228/40420/16426/5211/28
0.0420.0690.1220.5000.393
OR for error (95% CI) unadjustedRef (1.00)1.68 (0.83 to 3.44)3.14 (1.51 to 6.55)22.61 (8.49 to 60.24)14.63 (5.68 to 37.71)
p=0.15p=0.002p<0.0001p<0.0001
OR adjusted for regular or when required (95% CI)Ref (1.00)1.50 (0.73 to 3.11)3.09 (1.48 to 6.44)20.20 (7.58 to 53.84)13.89 (5.17 to 37.31)
p=0.27p=0.003p<0.0001p<0.0001
OR (95% CI) adjusted for regular orRef (1.00)2.14 (1.02 to 4.51)4.31 (2.02 to 9.21)33.59 (12.51 to 90.19)19.61 (6.90 to 55.73)
when required, age group, type of care, Care Quality Commission ratingp=0.04p=0.0002p<0.0001p<0.0001
  • N, number of subjects; n, number of medicines.