Table 1

Methodological characteristics of studies of economically attractive safety improvements in acute care (N=5)

Methodological featureKarnon et al35Shermock et al36Regenbogen et al37Maenthaisong et al38Waters et al39
Patient safety target (total methodological feature score out of 35)Adverse eventsAdverse eventsForeign body (24 out of 35)Nosocomial infectionNosocomial infection
1. The research question is statedYYYYY
2. The economic importance of the research question is statedYYYYY
3. The viewpoint(s) of the analysis are clearly stated and justifiedYYYYY
4. The form of economic evaluation used is statedYYYYY
5. Alternatives being compared are clearly describedYYYYY
6. Form of economic evaluation used is statedYYYYY
7. The choice of form of economic evaluation is justified in relation to the questions addressedYYYYY
8. The sources of effectiveness estimates used are statedYYYYY
9. Details of the design and results of effectiveness study are given (if based on a single study)YYYNY
10. Details of the method of synthesis or meta-analysis of estimates are given (if based on an overview of a number of effectiveness studies)NYNYN
11. The primary outcome measure(s) for the economic evaluation are clearly statedYYYYY
12. Methods used to value health states and other benefits are statedYNNNN
13. Details of the subjects from whom valuations were obtained are givenYNNNN
14. Productivity changes (if included) are reported separatelyNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot Applicable
15. The relevance of productivity changes to the study question is discussedNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot Applicable
16. Quantities of resources are reported separately from their unit costsNYYYY
17. Methods of the estimation of quantities and unit costs are describedYYYYY
18. Currency and price data are recordedYYNYY
19. Details of currency of price adjustments for inflation or currency conversion are givenYNNNY
20. Details of any model used are givenYYYYN
21. The choice of model used and the key parameters on which it is based are justifiedYYYYN
22. Time horizon of costs and benefits is statedYYYYY
23. The discount rate(s) is statedNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot Applicable
24. The choice of rate(s) is justifiedNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot Applicable
25. An explanation is given if costs or benefits are not discountedNYYNN
26. Details of statistical tests and CIs are given for stochastic dataNYYYY
27. The approach to sensitivity analysis is givenYYYYN
28. The choice variables for sensitivity analysis is justifiedYYYYN
29. The ranges over which the variables are varied are statedYYYYN
30. Relevant alternatives are comparedYYYYY
31. Incremental analysis is reportedYYYYY
32. Major outcomes are presented in a disaggregated as well as aggregated form*YYYNN
33. The answer to the study question is givenYYYYY
34. Conclusions follow from the data reportedYYYYY
35. Conclusions are accompanied by the appropriate caveatsYYYYY
  • * A disaggregated cost lists each element of a total cost. For example, a disaggregated cost for a surgical site infection could include inpatient professional costs, outpatient professional costs, medication costs, and per diem hospital bed-day costs.

  • Y, yes; N, no.