Table 2

Summary of included papers: frequency of patient reporting and classification

AuthorsTotal no. of patient reported PSIs% Of patient sample reporting a PSI*No. of PSIs per patientMethod of classifying patient reported PSIsTotal no. of patient incident reports classified as a PSI% Of patient sample reporting a classified PSI§No. of classified PSIs per patient
Agoritsas et al15181448%1.3NoneNot reported
Fowler et al23Not reported29%Physician84524%0.33
Friedman et al24189%0.1Physician189%0.09
Kaboli et al25250.2Physician and pharmacist120.10
López et al26Not reported29%Physician84524%0.33
Schwappach2712845%1.02ResearcherNot reported
Schwappach and Wernli28Not reported16.2%NoneNot reported
Weingart et al1731049%1.4Physician6220%0.27
Weingart et al2912143%0.63Physician and nurse200.10
Weingart et al3019**11%0.11††NoneNot reported
Weissman et al31Not reportedPhysician and nurse30423%0.31
Van den Bemt et al32Not reportedStatus of classification unclear31129%0.50
Zhu et al33117029%0.45Physician83324%0.32
  • * Percentage of sample reporting a PSI: (number of unique patients reporting a PSI/total number of patients)×100.

  • No. of reported PSIs per patient calculated by dividing total number of reported PSIs by total number of patients.

  • Relates to patient reported PSIs classified as a PSI by physician review (including near misses, and medical error with or without harm).

  • § Percentage of sample reporting a physician or nurse classified PSI based on: (number of unique patients who reported a physician or nurse classified PSI/total number of patients)×100.

  • No. of physician or nurse classified PSIs per patient calculated by dividing total number of classified PSIs by total number of patients.

  • ** In this study, patients were only asked to report if they had experienced a mistake related to their medication, meaning that the total number of reports is limited to the number of patients reporting a mistake.

  • †† Of the original sample of 209 patients, only 173 patients were surveyed. Therefore, percentages of those reporting mistakes with medication are calculated on a sample of 173.