Table 1

H-PEPSS factors and associated items

FactorItem #Item: ‘I feel confident in what I learned about…’
1. Working in teams with other health professionals, α=0.81 (items 6, 9, 10)5*Team dynamics and authority/power differences
6Managing inter-professional conflict
7Debriefing and supporting team members after an adverse event or close call
8Engaging patients as a central participant in the healthcare team
9Sharing authority, leadership and decision-making
10Encouraging team members to speak up, question, challenge, advocate and be accountable as appropriate to address safety issues
2. Communicating effectively, α=0.8511Enhancing patient safety through clear and consistent communication with patients
12Enhancing patient safety through effective communication with other healthcare providers
13Effective verbal and nonverbal communication abilities to prevent adverse events
3. Managing safety risks, α=0.8514Recognising routine situations in which safety problems may arise
15Identifying and implementing safety solutions
16Anticipating and managing high risk situations
4. Understanding human and environmental factors, α=0.84 (items 17, 18)17The role of human factors, such as fatigue, which effect patient safety
18The role of environmental factors such as work flow, ergonomics and resources, which effect patient safety
19Safe application of health technology
5. Recognise and respond to reduce harm, α=0.81(items 20, 21)20Recognising an adverse event or close call
21Reducing harm by addressing immediate risks for patients and others involved
22Disclosing an adverse event to the patient
23Participating in timely event analysis, reflective practice and planning in order to prevent recurrence
6. Culture of safety, α=0.84 (items 25–27)24*The ways in which healthcare is complex and has many vulnerabilities (eg, workplace design, staffing, technology, human limitations)
25The importance of having a questioning attitude and speaking up when you see things that may be unsafe
26The importance of a supportive environment that encourages patients and providers to speak up when they have safety concerns
27The nature of systems (eg, aspects of the organisation, management or the work environment including policies, resources, communication and other processes) and system failures and their role in adverse events
  • * Item removed for redundancy reasons.

  • Item distal to the remaining items in the construct, item removed.

  • H-PEPSS, Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey.