Table 1

Samples of coded videotape segments

Main categoryCodeObservable behaviourExample
Content-oriented leadershipInformation collectionTeam members proactively acquire task relevant information
  • ‘Do we have Atropine on hand?’

  • ‘Did you inject 1% solution?’

Information transferTeam members proactively provide task relevant information or knowledge
  • Information about the state of the patient—for example, ‘ventilating is easy.’

  • Information about strategy or decisions: ‘Blood pressure measurement is set to 2 min.’

Problem-solvingTeam members verbalise a problem, provide interpretation of a problem, are looking for a solution and are setting new goals
  • ‘I'm not worried about the bradycardia—that's due to the Fentanyl.’

  • ‘Maybe this instrument is broken?’

Structuring leadershipDistribution of roles and assigning tasksTeam members assign tasks or roles to other team members
  • ‘Please inject 10 mg propofol’

  • ‘Could you hold the mask for me, please?’

Decision about proceduresTeam members offer clear performance strategies or show other team members how to do something
  • ‘We're going to provide respiration without a filter’

  • ‘We prepare atropine but wait before injecting’

Initiate an actionTeam members initiate an action without being asked
  • ‘I'll start with the blood pressure measurement’

Structuring work processTeam members determine the sequence of actions, coordinate pace and rhythm of activities and plan next steps
  • ‘Let's wait until the frequency goes up, then we'll try it again’

  • Nurse asks whether she is allowed to preoxygenise the patient. Resident answers: ‘No, not yet. Let me first fill out the report.’

Resource managementTeam members manage staff and equipment resources
  • Additional equipment or staff is requested

  • Somebody is asked to help