Table 1

Publications matching the inclusion criteria

AuthorsTitleMethodological approachObjectiveParticipants
1. Beasley et al, 200433Design elements for a primary care medical error reporting systemFocus groupsTo determine what elements need to be included in the design of a medical error reporting system for ambulatory carePhysicians and clinical assistants
2. Braithwaite et al, 200813Attitudes towards the large-scale implementation of an IRSSurvey studyTo determine whether healthcare professionals support the system via utilisation and favourable attitudes; to analyse differences between nurses and doctors2185 health practitioners
3. Coyle et al, 200534Effectiveness of a graduate medical education programme for improving medical event reporting attitude and behaviourSurvey study (longitudinal two-wave assessment)To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational programme for improving medical event reporting attitude and behaviour in the ambulatory care setting among graduate medical trainees30 family practice residents
4. Evans et al, 200635Attitudes and barriers to incident reporting: a collaborative hospital studySurvey studyTo assess awareness and use of the current IRS and to identify factors inhibiting reporting of incidents in hospitals186 doctors and 587 nurses from diverse clinical settings
5. Garbutt et al, 200812Lost opportunities: how physicians communicate about medical errorsSurvey studyTo (1) determine physicians' willingness to share information about errors with their hospital and colleagues, (2) describe how physicians communicate about errors and (3) learn how error communication between physicians and their hospital could be improved1082 physicians (medicine+surgery) from the USA and Canada
6. Jeffe et al, 200436Using focus groups to understand physicians' and nurses' perspectives on error reporting in hospitalsFocus groupsTo understand physicians' and nurses' perspectives regarding error reporting in hospitals and barriers to reporting; to assess possible ways to increase error reportingFour focus groups with 49 staff nurses, two with 10 nurse managers, and three with 30 physicians
7. Karsh et al, 20068Towards a theoretical approach to medical error reporting system research and designTwo focus groups that met a total of 16 times to discuss different topicsTo present an integrated theoretical model of medical error reporting system design and implementation; to explore the barriers and facilitators for the design of a statewide medical error reporting system and to apply theories of technology acceptance, adoption and implementation“Physician” group (n=8), “clinical assistant” group (n=6)
8. Kingston et al, 200437Attitudes of doctors and nurses towards incident reporting: a qualitative analysisFive focus groups (one each for consultants, registrars, resident medical officers, senior nurses and junior nurses)To examine attitudes of medical and nursing staff towards reporting incidents and to identify measures to facilitate incident reporting. Differences between doctors and nurses were examined using Triandis' theory of social behaviour14 medical and 19 nursing staff
9. Merchant and Gully, 200538A survey of British Columbia anesthesiologists on a provincial critical incident reporting programmeSurvey studyTo determine why anesthesiologists in British Columbia have not actively participated in a provincial Critical Incident Reporting Service; to ascertain reasons for the lack of involvement, and to distinguish between problems with the reporting form itself versus the critical incident analysis process207 anesthesiologists
10. Schectman and Plews-Ogan, 200639Physician perception of hospital safety and barriers to incident reportingSurvey studyTo analyse physicians' reporting behaviour and their barriers to hospital incident reporting; to assess which changes might improve incident reporting120 physicians (internal medicine)
11. Tamuz et al, 200440Defining and classifying medical error: lessons for patient safety reporting systemsSemistructured interviewsTo examine how the definition and classification of safety-related events influences the reporting of errors, the perceived incentives and disincentives for reporting, and the analysis as well as the organisational learning from event reporting data36 pharmacy staff members, 36 members of a patient care unit (nurses and physicians) and 14 key hospital administrators
12. Taylor et al, 200441Use of incident reports by physicians and nurses to document medical errors in paediatric patientsSurvey studyTo describe the proportion of perceived medical errors that were reported to IRS; to assess reasons for under-reporting and attitudes about potential interventions for increasing error reports74 physicians and 66 nurses caring for paediatric patients
13. Uribe et al, 200242Perceived barriers to medical error reporting: an exploratory investigationSurvey studyTo explore the factors influencing medical error reporting; to determine the factors' likelihood to act as barriers and to be modified through the implementation of new policies or strategies56 physicians (internal medicine and surgery) and 66 nurses
14. Vincent et al, 199947Reasons for not reporting adverse incidents: an empirical studySurvey studyTo assess (1) whether staff knows about the existence of IRS, (2) staff estimates of the likelihood to report 10 example obstetric incidents and (3) the attitudes towards 10 potential reasons for not reporting incidents42 obstetricians, 156 midwives (of two obstetric units)
15. Wakefield et al, 199644Perceived barriers in reporting medication administration errorsSurvey studyTo assess nurses' perceptions of the reasons why medication administration errors may not be reported1384 nurses of 24 acute care hospitals
16. Wakefield et al, 199910Understanding why medication administration errors may not be reportedSurvey studyTo develop an instrument to understand why medication administration errors may not be reported; to conduct, therefore, a confirmatory factor analysis to test a four-factor solution of reasons to not report errors and then to analyse results at the unit level1482 nurses from Iowa's acute care hospitals
17. Waring, 200545Beyond blame: cultural barriers to medical incident reporting28 semistructured interviewsTo assess physicians' attitudes towards incident reporting integrating cultural features of medical professionalism to move beyond the often cited notion of “blame culture”Three senior medical representatives and 25 specialist physicians
18. Wild and Bradley, 200546The gap between nurses and residents in a community hospital's error reporting systemSurvey studyTo assess knowledge and use of hospital's error reporting system, perceptions and attitudes towards reporting24 residents, 60 nursing staff
19. Wu et al, 20089Testing the technology acceptance model for evaluating healthcare professionals' intention to use an adverse event reporting systemSurvey studyTo examine what determines the acceptance of adverse event reporting systems by healthcare professionals in testing an extended technology acceptance model that integrates trust and management support290 health professionals from 144 hospitals