Table 4

Calculation of cost-effectiveness measures (EMB and ICERs) for the intervention in a hospital with 50 000 discharges per year: the estimated total cost, QALYs, and the cost-effectiveness results

Total discharge50000Number of adverse eventsQALY lossCosts of adverse events (€)
Unit cost of the intervention per discharge (€)16.6
Cost of the intervention (€)827900
Willingness to pay (€) per QALY20000
Rate of adverse event0.199500*0.775×9500=7365.1*1080×9500=10261714†
Attributable to handover errors0.33331640.775×3164=2452.61080×3164=3417151
  • *From table 3.

  • †This assumes that the costs of non-preventable adverse events is the same as that used in the calculations for preventable adverse events—there is some evidence that preventable adverse events are more costly.33

  • EMB, monetary benefit; ICER, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio; QALY, Quality Adjusted Life Year.