Table 2

Definitions and descriptions of medication administration and interruption coding

OccurrenceA single nurse checking, collecting and preparing medications within the medication station with at least one use of the Kardex. Time measurements started from opening of the Kardex and ended at leaving the medication station
InterruptionIntrusion of a secondary unplanned and unscheduled task into a primary task (in this case, medication administration)
Self-interruptionInterruption initiated by the nurse under observation during the occurrence; an endogenous interruption29
Other-interruptionInterruption initiated by someone else and directed at the nurse under observation during the occurrence; an exogenous interruption29
Patient careInterruptions related to direct care of one of the nurses' assigned patients. Interruptions from parents or patients were deemed patient care
Indirect patient careInterruptions not related to nurses' own patients, such as issues related to scheduling of tests and ward management. Casual conversation was included in this category