Table 1

The four main questions that guide weekly discussions on adverse outcomes

  • 1. What are consequences for patient and care?

    • Severity (four-level scale)—intensity and cost of care

  • 2. What is the complication's main determinant?

    • Targeted disease/co-morbidity/surgery/treatment otherwise

  • 3. In retrospect; could it have been avoided and how?

    • By other treatment choice/execution/pre-care or after-care/…

      • If so, then why was this not done?

        • Because of pros and cons of alternatives/risk assessment/simply “wrong”

  • 4. Prospectively: what is the lesson learnt?

    • There is none; the complication is “all in the game”

      • Then what was the risk?

  • 5. Did the patient know, and how do we know he/she did?

    • Yes, there is a “Lesson”!

      • Then what precisely went wrong, and what should be corrected for the future, how, when and by whom?