Table 4

Examples of the application of the developed typology for misconduct type and explanation for misconduct

ExampleMisconduct typeExplanation for misconduct
General practitioner prescribed without authority. Medications were prescribed at inappropriate dosages and medical records kept were inadequate. Administrative problems within the general practitioner's practice were an issueIllegal or unethical prescribing; medical certificates or records; treatmentInsufficient knowledge; poor judgement; work environment
Patient presented with unexplained bleeding numerous times over 6 months. Obstetrician/gynaecologist did not do an internal examination and missed diagnosing a benign growthMissed, delayed or incorrect diagnosisInsufficient knowledge
Ophthalmologist performed laser surgery on patient's eye without informing her of risks of procedure. Despite complications, ophthalmologist proceeded to operate on other eyeInformed consent; treatmentPoor judgement
General practitioner had sexual relationship with patient while doctor for patient's entire family, including husband. GP told patient's husband she was not having an affair. GP was stressed from changes in work situation and suffering from a psychological disorderSexual relationship with patientWillful wrongdoing; work situation; personal situation
Doctor concealed his hepatitis B infection on his application for registration then lied to investigators about it. Also concealed from own treating doctor that he was practicing as a doctorInappropriate conduct not in relation to patientsWillful wrongdoing; poor judgement
General practitioner performed an unsuccessful examination and then an intimate internal examination of female patient. The second examination was medically unnecessary. Communicated poorly with patient. GP was foreign trained and tribunal identified some cultural misunderstandings at playInappropriate sexual conduct towards patient; treatment; inappropriate non-sexual conduct towards patientIncompetence; personal situation