Table 1

Description of 11 training modules using human patient simulation (HPS) scenarios and ward-based simulation (WBS) exercises

TopicSimulation device(s)Scenario/exerciseTargeted skills
 Gastro-intestinal (GI) bleedManikin
Healthcare assistant (HCA) plant
78-year-old female patient; unwell; invisible lower GI bleedCalling for help; teamwork; communication
HCA plant
81-year-old male patient; agitatedEmpathetic communication
Clostridium difficileActor
88-year-old male patient; confirmed C difficile diarrhoea, concerned relativeCommunicating effectively with relative
 Busy wardActors
Various patients; busy weekday; unwell patient; transfers and dischargesTeamwork, communication, using available resources
Delegating and prioritising
 Hospital at nightActor
HCA plant
Senior colleague on telephone
85-year-old female patient; short of breath and tachycardic; unwell; PAR score 5Calling for help, using available resources
 Clinical communicationActorDiscussion with relative; patient declined surgery, deteriorated; discussing whether to withdraw careEmpathetic communication
End of life communication skills
 Physical disability due to arthritis and multiple sensory impairmentsAgeing simulation suit; occupational and physiotherapy inputRole play using ageing simulation suit; nurses/HCAs take turns to care for each other as the ‘patient’Empathetic communication, maintaining privacy and dignity, assisting safely with physical tasks
 Multi-disciplinary meeting (MDM)Simulated meeting roomSimulated (MDM) with role play; participants take staff roles and perspectivesCommunication, effective teamwork
 Feeding and nutritionPart-task trainer; nutrition specialist inputNasogastric feeding via a part-task trainer; workshop on ensuring a safe eating environment and nutritional assessmentSelecting appropriate food and fluids, maintaining privacy and dignity, skills practice, haptic feedback using nasogastric feeding, feeding options
 Care of the older personActor for each exercisePerforming a 12-lead ECG, catheter care, personal careAppreciating the older patient experience, integrating clinical communication into direct patient care, maintaining privacy and dignity
 Care of relativesActor for each exerciseExplaining use of crash mats to distressed relative; discuss feeding in end-stage dementiaAppreciating the relative's experience, effective communication with relatives, maintaining privacy and dignity