Table 2

Composite performance scores, intervention effects and differences in mean levels of care (overall and by patient and practice characteristics)

 Descriptive statisticsResults of regression analyses*
Mean (SD)Intervention effectDifferences in care levels
2000/12001/22002/32003/4†2004/52005/62006/7Short term (2004/5 score minus prediction from pre-QOF trend)Long term (2004/5 score minus prediction from pre-QOF trend)Pre-QOF, 2000/1 to 2002/3Post-QOF, 2004/5 to 2006/7
Coefficient (95% CI)‡p Value§Coefficient (95% CI)‡p Value§Coefficient (95% CI)‡p Value§Coefficient (95% CI)‡p Value§
Overall46.5 (23.0)51.8 (22.5)57.1 (22.1)68.7 (21.3)78.7 (19.3)80.7 (18.2)81.0 (17.7)14.2 (13.7 to 14.6)<0.0017.3 (6.7 to 8.0)<0.001
Patient covariates
 Gender
  Male¶46.9 (23.5)52.3 (23.0)57.8 (22.4)69.0 (21.4)79.0 (19.3)81.0 (18.3)81.5 (17.6)0.292**0.056**<0.001<0.001
  Female46.2 (22.4)51.3 (22.0)56.3 (21.7)68.3 (21.2)78.1 (19.3)80.3 (18.2)80.9 (17.1)0.8 (−0.7 to 2.2)1.7 (−0.05 to 3.4)−1.7 (−2.3 to −1.1)−2.0 (−2.5 to −1.5)
 Age
  17–29¶33.4 (24.1)37.5 (24.9)43.5 (24.7)54.8 (25.3)66.4 (24.4)68.4 (24.3)68.7 (23.0)0.3720.205<0.001<0.001
  30–6446.2 (23.0)51.1 (22.6)56.4 (22.1)67.4 (21.5)77.3 (19.9)79.6 (18.4)79.8 (18.0)1.7 (−1.3 to 4.6)3.0 (−0.5 to 6.0)9.1 (8.2 to 9.9)8.9 (8.2 to 9.7)
  65 or over49.0 (22.2)54.5 (21.3)59.7 (21.0)71.6 (19.8)81.2 (17.3)83.0 (16.5)83.9 (15.2)2.1 (−0.9 to 4.8)3.0 (−0.4 to 6.0)11.0 (10.2 to 11.7)11.7 (11.0 to 12.4)
 Previous care
  0 years¶ (new diagnoses)44.7 (21.4)50.4 (20.7)56.5 (19.3)65.3 (20.5)73.4 (19.3)74.2 (18.7)74.3 (17.8)<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
  1–4 years48.4 (23.2)53.9 (22.0)59.4 (21.7)71.1 (20.4)80.9 (18.4)83.0 (17.1)83.2 (16.6)6.2 (3.7 to 8.6)6.0 (3.2 to 8.5)4.7 (4.1 to 5.2)9.1 (8.7 to 9.5)
  5–9 years46.4 (23.4)51.9 (23.1)56.8 (23.2)69.1 (21.9)78.7 (20.0)81.4 (18.2)81.8 (17.8)6.4 (3.8 to 8.8)6.1 (3.2 to 8.6)2.7 (2.0 to 3.4)7.8 (7.3 to 8.3)
  10+ years45.4 (23.0)50.0 (23.2)55.1 (22.7)66.7 (21.9)77.6 (19.4)79.3 (18.9)80.4 (17.4)6.6 (4.1 to 8.9)7.0 (4.4 to 9.3)1.3 (0.6 to 2.1)6.1 (5.5 to 6.7)
 Number of co-morbid conditions
  None¶42.3 (24.7)47.1 (24.5)52.2 (24.6)62.9 (24.8)73.5 (23.3)75.6 (22.7)76.2 (21.6)0.4720.665<0.001<0.001
  One46.6 (22.7)51.8 (22.3)57.2 (21.9)68.8 (21.4)78.6 (19.4)80.9 (17.9)80.8 (17.7)0.5 (−1.4 to 2.4)0.2 (−2.2 to 2.4)4.1 (3.5 to 4.7)3.7 (3.1 to 4.3)
  Two48.5 (21.8)53.7 (21.4)59.2 (20.2)70.8 (18.7)80.6 (16.9)82.2 (15.9)82.7 (15.0)0.9 (−1.3 to 2.9)−0.3 (−3.0 to 2.2)6.2 (5.6 to 6.9)5.4 (4.8 to 6.0)
  Three or more51.2 (20.8)56.6 (20.0)61.3 (19.8)73.0 (17.5)82.1 (15.2)83.9 (14.4)84.4 (13.7)1.9 (−0.5 to 4.2)1.6 (−1.4 to 4.3)6.3 (5.5 to 7.1)6.1 (5.4 to 6.8)
Practice covariates
 Index of Multiple Deprivation score
  1st quartile¶47.5 (22.5)52.8 (21.4)57.4 (21.2)68.4 (20.4)79.3 (18.8)81.4 (17.5)81.8 (17.3)<0.0010.0020.1210.266
  2nd quartile43.2 (22.3)48.7 (22.3)54.4 (22.0)67.6 (21.2)78.8 (18.7)80.7 (17.9)81.3 (17.5)-0.3 to 3.81.1 (−1.5 to 3.4)−3.3 (−8.0 to 1.0)−2.3 (−6.2 to 1.4)
  3rd quartile46.5 (24.0)51.1 (23.3)56.5 (23.4)68.2 (22.6)78.0 (20.5)79.9 (19.2)80.3 (17.8)−0.8 (−3.0 to 1.3)−1.6 (−4.4 to 1.0)−2.6 (−7.2 to 1.6)−3.8 (−7.8 to −0.02)
  4th quartile (most deprived)49.0 (22.8)54.8 (22.8)60.4 (21.4)70.6 (20.9)78.3 (19.2)80.7 (18.2)81.5 (16.9)−4.9 (−7.2 to −2.7)−3.8 (−6.8 to −1.1)1.4 (−3.0 to 5.3)−2.1 (−6.2 to 1.6)
 Diabetes prevalence
  1st quartile¶47.8 (23.4)53.9 (22.2)59.2 (21.8)69.0 (21.4)79.6 (19.0)80.7 (18.7)81.0 (17.9)0.004<0.001<0.001<0.001
  2nd quartile44.9 (23.4)49.0 (23.0)54.1 (22.4)68.0 (21.0)78.2 (19.2)80.5 (18.2)81.1 (17.3)1.4 (−0.7 to 3.5)3.2 (0.7 to 5.4)−1.8 (−2.9 to −0.8)−1.1 (−2.0 to −0.3)
  3rd quartile48.7 (21.6)53.4 (21.1)57.2 (20.7)69.2 (21.2)78.0 (19.3)81.7 (17.2)81.9 (16.9)2.1 (−0.02 to 4.1)4.8 (2.5 to 6.8)−0.02 (−1.2 to 1.1)0.7 (−0.5 to 1.7)
  4th quartile (highest)44.9 (23.4)51.3 (23.4)58.1 (23.3)68.5 (21.7)78.6 (19.7)79.8 (18.8)81.0 (17.4)−1.6 (−3.9 to 0.5)−0.8 (−3.6 to 1.7)−0.9 (−2.4 to 0.5)1.1 (−0.3 to 2.5)
  • *23780 of the 23920 identified patients were included in the analyses (for 140 data was only available for 2003/04). Results are back-transformed to percentages from logit scores.

  • †Excluded from regression analyses.

  • ‡For covariates the value reported is the difference from the reference group coefficient.

  • §From omnibus post-regression tests when categories are three or more.

  • ¶Reference category.

  • **Significant in the sensitivity analysis with the untransformed scores.

  • QOF, Quality and Outcomes Framework.