Table 1

Patient safety knowledge, attitudes, skills and behaviours in trainees

PreinterventionPostinterventionSignificance
Domain assessed% Agreement (95% CI) (N)% Agreement (95% CI) (N)% Changep Value
Subjective knowledge*
1. Different types of patient safety incidents (PSI)9.2 (7.3 to 11.4) (71/774)45.0 (40.5 to 50.0) (206/458)+35.8<0.001
2. Factors contributing to PSIs25.3 (22.4 to 28.5) (196/774)63.1 (58.6 to 67.4) (289/458)+37.8<0.001
3. Factors influencing patient safety28.6 (25.5 to 31.8) (221/774)64.0 (59.5 to 68.2) (293/458)+35.4<0.001
4. Ways of speaking up about PSIs25.6 (22.6 to 28.8) (198/774)60.0 (55.5 to 64.4) (275/458)+34.4<0.001
5. What should happen if a PSI occurs34.4 (31.1 to 37.8) (266/774)62.9 (58.4 to 67.2) (288/458)+28.5<0.001
6. How to report a PSI38.6 (35.2 to 42.1) (299/774)63.5 (59.0 to 67.8) (291/458)+24.9<0.001
Average score6.1 (4.6 to 8.0) (47/774)38.4 (34.1 to 43.0) (176/458)+32.3<0.001
Attitudes*
1. Feelings about making errors (average score, 4 items)60.8 (57.3 to 64.2) (470/773)59.9 (55.3 to 64.3) (273/456)−0.90.747
2. Personal beliefs about patient safety (average score, 6 items)57.9 (54.4 to 61.4) (449/775)59.5 (55.0 to 63.9) (276/464)+1.60.593
3. Personal influence over safety (average score, 5 items)†12.5 (10.4 to 15.0) (97/775)22.4 (18.9 to 26.4) (104/464)+9.9<0.001
4. Intentions regarding patient safety (average score, 7 items)57.5 (54.0 to 61.0) (444/772)65.3 (60.9 to 69.5) (303/464)+7.80.007
Confidence in skills*
1. Identify a PSI72.8 (69.6 to 75.8) (562/772)86.6 (83.2 to 89.4) (401/463)+13.8<0.001
2. Identify situations which could lead to a PSI70.0 (66.8 to 73.2) (541/772)83.8 (80.2 to 86.9) (388/463)+13.8<0.001
3. Analyse a PSI to identify contributory factors54.5 (51.0 to 58.0) (421/772)80.8 (76.9 to 84.1) (374/463)+26.3<0.001
4. Generate learning from a PSI69.3 (66.0 to 72.5) (535/772)84.5 (80.9 to 87.5) (391/463)+15.2<0.001
5. Identify actions to be taken to prevent future incidents65.4 (62.0 to 68.7) (505/772)84.7 (81.1 to 87.7) (392/463)+19.3<0.001
Average score44.0 (40.6 to 47.6) (340/772)72.6 (68.3 to 76.4) (336/463)+28.6<0.001
BehavioursMean (SD) (N=737)Mean (SD) (N=428)Mean changep Value
1. How many PSIs are you aware of that have occurred in the past 6 months?2.62 (1.75)3.21 (1.61)+0.59<0.001
2. How many PSIs have you reflected on in your portfolio in the past 6 months?0.88 (1.11)1.72 (1.45)+0.84<0.001
3. How many PSIs have you discussed with your colleagues in the past 6 months?2.02 (1.61)2.71 (1.68)+0.69<0.001
4. How many PSIs have you or your team disclosed to a patient in the past 6 months?1.16 (1.41)1.68 (1.58)+0.52<0.001
5. How many PSIs have you reported via Incident Reporting Systems in the past 6 months?0.67 (1.11)1.18 (1.46)+0.51<0.001
  • *Rating scale: 1=very low/disagree strongly; 2=low/disagree; 3=average/neutral; 4=high/agree; 5=very high/strongly agree.

  • †Excludes one item due to poor internal consistency (please refer to web appendix 5a).