Table 2

Relative frequency that themes, subthemes and underlying dimensions were discussed in the focus groups

Frequency individual dimension was discussed in focus groups
ThemesSubthemesDimensionsBedside nurses/RTs (n=3 groups)Charge nurses (n=3 groups)Residents (n=1 group)
 Team-based careFamily empowermentFamily empowerment+++++
Nurse empowermentAbility/confidence to go ‘up the chain’+++++
Leadership role during rounds+++
Unit culture that supports teamwork, accountability and safetyCulture that facilitates trusting relationships+++++
Willingness to ask for second opinions++++
Accountability for carrying out mitigation plans++++++
Explicit sharing of plans across shifts and disciplines+++++
 Availability of standardised dataStandardised data elements/scoresPaediatric Early Warning Score++++++
Gut feeling+++
Tools for entering, displaying and monitoring data and data trendsTools for entering, displaying and monitoring data and data trends++++++
 Standardised processes and proceduresShared training and language regarding patient riskEducation/training on SA++++++
Shared language of ‘watcher’+++++++
Experience in deterioration/critical care+++++++
Peer coaching and mentoring+++++
Debriefs after events+++++
Structure to proactively identify and plan for riskHuddles+++++++
Proactive assessment and planning++++++
Clear MRT calling criteria++
Structure to support handoffs and continuity of careStandardised handoff practices++++
Knowledge of patient's medical history/baseline+++++
Knowledge of family+
Documented follow-up plans+
Structure that supports adequate workload/staffingAdequate staffing++++++
Staff knowledgeable of disease/patient population++
Extra resources available if needed+++
  • −, not mentioned; +, mentioned in one group; ++, mentioned in two groups; +++, mentioned in three groups.

  • MRT, medical response team; RT, respiratory therapist; SA, situation awareness.