TableĀ 1

Assessing the five dimensions of safety

DimensionIllustrative measures and assessments
Case record review
Global trigger tool
National audits
Patient safety indicators
Rates of surgical complications
Incidence of falls
Incidence of pressure ulcers
Mortality and morbidity
Reliability of safety critical processes
Observation of safety critical behaviour
Audit of equipment availability
Monitoring of vital signs
Monitoring of stroke care bundles
Venous thromboembolism risk assessment
Assessment of suicide risk
Sensitivity to operations
Safety walk-rounds and conversations
Talking to patients
Ward rounds and routine reviews of patients and working conditions
Briefings and debriefings
Observation and conversations with clinical teams
Real time monitoring and feedback in anaesthesia
Anticipation and preparedness
Structured reflection
Risk registers
Human reliability analysis
Safety cases
Safety culture assessment
Anticipated staffing levels and skill mix
Integration and learning
Aggregate analysis of incidents, claims and complaints
Feedback and implementation of safety lessons by clinical teams
Regular integration and review by clinical teams and general practice
Whole system suites of safety metrics, for example, web enabled portals clinical unit level
Population level analyses of safety metrics