Table 1

Characteristics of the included studies

StudyDesignIntervention typeDescription
Scaglione (2005)CBAEducation onlyHospital-wide VTE prophylaxis guideline implementation
Piazza (2012)CBAEducation onlyPharmacist led patient education intervention to improve administration rates of VTE prophylaxis
Liu (2012)CBAPaperStandardised paper based medication chart, was incorporated in Australian public hospitals
O'Connor (2009)CBAPaperVTE prophylaxis order set for admitting medically ill patients
Fontaine (2006)RCTPaperVTE prophylaxis prescription aids
Streiff (2012)CBAPaperPaper based order set for admitting surgical patients
Lesselroth (2011)CBAComputerisedClinical decision support order menu in computerised patient record system
Beeler (2011)CCTComputerisedElectronic alert displayed in chart of medically ill patients with documented risk but no prophylaxis order within 6 h of admission
Kucher (2005)RCTComputerisedElectronic alert to providers of patients at risk for developing VTE who were not prescribed prophylaxis
Haut (2012)CBAComputerisedMandatory, computerised clinical decision support enabled VTE risk stratification order set was implemented in the computerised provider order entry system
Piazza (2009)RCTReal time audit and feedbackReal time alert to the attending physicians of patients at high risk of VTE who are not receiving prophylaxis
Mahan (2012)CBAReal time audit and feedbackPharmacists prospectively reviewed patients’ medical records to determine risk factors for VTE and the current prescribed prophylaxis. When the prophylaxis prescription was inadequate for their risk level, the pharmacist alerted the attending physician (in person or via telephone communication)
Clark (2011)CBACombinationClinical guideline implemented using a multidisciplinary team and multimodal strategy involving education, information technology, verbal and written reminders, and with frequent optimisation based on feedback from end users
Gallagher (2009)CBACombinationEducation and a printed hospital-wide risk assessment tool incorporated into routine clinical practice with VTE related feedback to clinicians
Stinnett (2005)CBACombinationEducation and a combination VTE prevention tool, including a VTE risk stratification scheme, and a standard admission order form that presented optimal VTE prevention regimens.
Maynard (2010)CBACombinationComputerised risk assessment form linked to preferred VTE prophylaxis options with quarterly educational sessions, and feedback to the clinical staff when audits indicated that their patient was prescribed inadequate prophylaxis
  • CBA, controlled before/after; CCT, non-randomised controlled clinical trial; RCT, randomised controlled trial; VTE, venous thromboembolism.