Table 2

Effect of interventions on proportion of medication doses administered with error reported by studies using direct observation methods*

First author (year)InterventionsPre-intervention % of doses with errorPost-interventionStatistical significance
Measurement timing†% of doses with error
Kliger (2012)34Various‡16.6Immediately post3.6p<0.01
12 months2.0p<0.01
Nguyen (2010)36Signs, diversion strategies2.06 months0
12 months0
Kliger (2009)33Various‡14.66 months8.2p<0.05
18 months4.2p<0.05
  • *All three studies were related to the same project, the ‘Integrated Nurse Leadership Program’.

  • †Post-intervention measurement timing refers to how long after intervention implementation measurement occurred.

  • ‡Multiple interventions were designed and implemented (only some of which targeted interruptions) on each ward individually and were not reported in detail in the publications.