Table 1

Construction of the subscales: presentation of the single items and the instrument origin (Nursing Work Index—Revised (NWI-R), Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC)

SubscalesSingle items
Staffing adequacy (NWI-R)Enough time and opportunity to discuss patient care problems with other nurses
Enough registered nurses to provide quality patient care
Enough staff to get the work done
Nurse–physician relationship (NWI-R)Physicians and nurses have good working relationships
A lot of team work between nurses and physicians
Collaboration (joint practice) between nurses and physicians
Physicians value nurses’ observations and judgments
Physicians recognise nurses’ contributions to patient care
Physicians respect nurses as professionals
Physicians hold nurses in high esteem
Quality system (NWI-R)A clear philosophy of nursing that pervades the patient care environment
Working with nurses who are clinically competent
An active quality assurance programme
A preceptor programme for newly hired registered nurses
Nursing care is based on a nursing model, rather than a medical model
Written, up-to-date nursing care plans for all patients
Patient care assignments that foster continuity of care (ie, the same nurse cares for the patient from one day to the next)
Patient safety management (HSOPSC)In this unit, we discuss ways to prevent errors from happening again
We are given feedback about changes put into place based on event reports
The actions of hospital management show that patient safety is a top priority