Table 5

Correlations among patient safety climate scales and self-reported speaking up behaviour

 SAQ safety climate (SAQ-S)
 SAQ teamwork climate (SAQ-T)0.68*
 Speaking up climate—safety (SUC-Safe)†0.58*0.54*
 Speaking up climate—professionalism (SUC-Prof)†0.46*0.37*0.52*
Self-reported speaking up about:
 Patient safety breach0.140.090.21*0.22*
 Unprofessional behaviour0.03−*
  • *Correlations significant at p<0.004. Because we tested 14 correlations, a Bonferroni-adjusted significance level of 0.004 was calculated to account for the increased possibility of type-I error.

  • †The SUC-Safe and SUC-Prof scale scores used in this analysis were created using the reduced item set that came out of the CFA.

  • CFA, confirmatory factor analysis.